Journal of Energy Chemistry
ISSN 1003-9953
     
能源化学(英文)

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Ultrafine nitrogen doped TiO2 nanoparticles: excellent performance for water splitting

This paper reports the facile synthesis, characterization and solar-light driven photocatalytic water-splitting of ultrafine nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalyst (N-TiO2). The N-TiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated via a PVP-assisted solvothermal method and characterized in terms of their structure, morphological, optical and photocatalytic water-splitting properties. The dual function of PVP acted as both nitrogen source and stabilizer showed potential usage in the synthesis process of solar-light driven semiconductors. The excellent performance in water-splitting was attributed to the ultrafine particle size, hydrophilic groups on the surface and the successful doping of nitrogen.


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2016 Vol.25 No.1, Published: 2016-01-15
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Well-dispersed ultrafine nitrogen-doped TiO2 with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) acted as N-source and stabilizer for water splitting
Tianyu Liu, Wei Chen, Xiaoheng Liu, Junwu Zhu, Lude Lu
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 1-9 [Abstract] ( 40 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

In this paper, ultrafine nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalystwith enhanced photocatalyticwater-splitting properties was successfully fabricated via a solvothermal method. Herein, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as both nitrogen source and stabilizer. The enhancement in water-splitting process can be attributed to the doping of element nitrogen, which could supply an intermediate energy level and promote the separation of photo-excited holes and electrons. Moreover, this paper provides a new application of high-molecular polymer to synthesize solar-driven water-splitting photocatalysts.

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Biomass gasification technology: The state of the art overview
Antonio Molino, Simeone Chianese, Dino Musmarra
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 10-25 [Abstract] ( 39 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

In the last decades the interest in the biomass gasification process has increased due to the growing attention to the use of sustainable energy. Biomass is a renewable energy source and represents a valid alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of an organic material into a valuable gaseous product, called syngas, and a solid product, called char. The biomass gasification represents an efficient process for the production of power and heat and the production of hydrogen and second-generation biofuels. This paper deals with the state of the art biomass gasification technologies, evaluating advantages and disadvantages, the potential use of the syngas and the application of the biomass gasification. Syngas cleaning though fundamental to evaluate any gasification technology is not included in this paper since; in the authors' opinion, a dedicated review is necessary.

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Low-cost, green synthesis of highly porous carbons derived from lotus root shell as superior performance electrode materials in supercapacitor
Xin Wang, Mengjiao Wang, Xuemei Zhang, Hejun Li, Xiaohui Guo
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 26-34 [Abstract] ( 31 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

Facile production of high quality activated carbons from biomass materials has greatly triggered much attention presently. In this paper, a series of interconnected porous carbon materials from lotus root shells biomass are prepared via simple pyrolysis and followed by a KOH activation process. The prepared carbons exhibit high specific surface areas of up to 2961 m2/g and large pore volume~1.47 cm3/g. In addition, the resultant porous carbons served as electrode materials in supercapacitor exhibit high specific capacitance and outstanding recycling stability and high energy density. In particular, their specific capacitance retention was almost 100% after 10500 cycles at a current density of 2 A/g. Remarkabely, the impact of the tailored specific surface areas of various carbon samples on their capacitive performances is systematically investigated. Generally, it was believed that the highly-developed porosity features (including surface areas and pore volume and pore size-distributions), together with the good conductivity of activated carbon species, play a key role in effectively improving the storage energy performances of the porous carbon electrode materials in supercapacitor.

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Biomass-derived activated carbon materials with plentiful heteroatoms for high-performance electrochemical capacitor electrodes
Xiangyang Zhou, Hongcheng Li, Juan Yang
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 35-40 [Abstract] ( 37 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

Activated carbons for electrochemical capacitor electrodes are prepared from soyabean using chemical activation with KOH. The pore size is easily controllable by changing the mass ratio between KOH and carbonized product. The as-prepared materials possess a large specific surface area, unique structure, well- developed hierarchical porosity and plentiful heteroatoms (mainly O and N). Thus resulted in its high specific capacitance, good rate capacity and cycling stability. Moreover, attributing to worldwide availability, renewable nature and low-cost, activated carbon prepared from soyabean has a good potential in energy conversion and storage devices.

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Influence of TiO2 on the electrochemical performance of pasted type β-nickel hydroxide electrode in alkaline electrolyte
B. Shruthi, B. J. Madhu, V. Bheema Raju
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 41-48 [Abstract] ( 35 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

Nickel hydroxide was used as the positive electrode material in rechargeable alkaline batteries, which plays a significant role in the field of electric energy storage devices. β-nickel hydroxide (β-Ni(OH)2) was prepared from nickel sulphate solution using potassium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. Pure β-phase of nickel hydroxide was confirmed from XRD and FT-IR studies. The effects of TiO2 additive on the β-Ni(OH)2 electrode performance are examined. The structure and property of the TiO2 added β-Ni(OH)2 were characterized by XRD, TG-DTA and SEM analysis. A pasted-type electrode is prepared using nickel hydroxide powder as the main active material on a nickel sheet as a current collector. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies were performed to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the β-Ni(OH)2 and TiO2 added β-Ni(OH)2 electrodes in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Anodic (Epa) and cathodic (Epc) peak potentials are found to decrease after the addition of TiO2 into β-Ni(OH)2 electrode material. Further, addition of TiO2 is found to enhance the reversibility of the electrode reaction and also increase the separation of the oxidation current peak of the active material from the oxygen evolution current. Compared with pure β-Ni(OH)2 electrode, TiO2 added β-Ni(OH)2 electrode is found to exhibit higher proton diffusion coefficient (D) and lower charge transfer resistance. These findings suggest that the TiO2 added β-Ni(OH)2 electrode possess improved electrochemical properties and thus can be recognized as a promising candidate for the battery electrode applications.

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Three-dimensional paper-like graphene framework with highly orientated laminar structure as binder-free supercapacitor electrode
Yidan Gao, Yaoyao Zhang, Yong Zhang, Lijing Xie, Xiaoming Li, Fangyuan Su, Xianxian Wei, Zhiwei Xu, Chengmeng Chen, Rong Cai
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 49-54 [Abstract] ( 33 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

A free-standing paper-like three-dimensional graphene framework (3DGF) with orientated laminar structure and interconnected macropores, was obtained by the hard template-directed ordered assembly. As the sacrificial templates, polystyrene (PS) latex spheres were assembled with graphene oxide (GO) to build up a sandwich type composite film, followed by heat removal of which with a simultaneous reduction of GO. The 3DGF exhibited high specific surface area of 402.5 m2/g, controllable pores and mechanical flexibility, which was employed as the binder-free supercapacitor electrode and shows high specific gravimetric capacitance of 95 F/g at 0.5 A/g, with enhanced rate capability in 3 electrode KOH system.

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Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of the composite of TiO2 and conjugated derivative of polyvinyl alcohol immobilized on cordierite under visible light irradiation
Jin Zhang, Haigang Yang, Long Jiang, Yi Dan
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 55-61 [Abstract] ( 35 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

A novel visible light active photo-catalyst named CHC/C-PVA/TiO2, the composite of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with conjugated derivative of polyvinyl alcohol (C-PVA) loaded on a cordierite honeycomb ceramic (CHC) substrate, was fabricated by combining the synthesis of TiO2 sol, preparation of C-PVA via thermally treating polyvinyl alcohol, and immobilization of TiO2 sol and C-PVA on CHC. By detecting the change of UV-vis absorption spectra of the model organic pollutant (methyl orange (MO)) in the presence of the composite under visible light irradiation, the photo-catalytic activity was evaluated and the results show that the CHC/C-PVA/TiO2composite has an enhanced photo-catalytic activity when compared to the CHC/TiO2 composite. Besides, the CHC/C-PVA/TiO2 shows a good photo-catalytic stability after the fourth cycles. The structure analyses by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) show the coexistence of C-PVA and TiO2 on the CHC and the cracks on the surface of CHC/C-PVA/TiO2. Result of ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) reveals that the CHC/C-PVA/TiO2 can absorb both ultraviolet and visible light while result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates the existence of C, O and Ti elements in the CHC/C-PVA/TiO2. The typical structures as well as the optical characteristics of the CHC/C-PVA/TiO2 are responsible for the enhancement in the photo-catalytic activity.

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Evaluation of multi-cycle performance of chemical looping dry reforming using CO2 as an oxidant with Fe-Ni bimetallic oxides
Zhen Huang, Huanqi Jiang, Fang He, Dezhen Chen, Guoqiang Wei, Kun Zhao, Anqing Zheng, Yipeng Feng, Zengli Zhao, Haibin Li
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 62-70 [Abstract] ( 40 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

Chemical looping dry reforming (CLDR) is an innovative technology for CO2 utilization using the chemical looping principle. The CLDR process consists of three stages, i.e. CH4 reduction, CO2 reforming, and air oxidation. Spinel nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) was prepared and its multi-cycle performance as an oxygen carrier for CLDR was experimentally investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Laser Raman spectroscopy showed that a pure spinel crystalline phase (NiFe2O4) was obtained by a parallel flow co-precipitating method. NiFe2O4 was reduced into Fe-Ni alloy and wustite (FexO) during the CH4 reduction process. Subsequent oxidation of the reduced oxygen carrier was performed with CO2 as an oxidant to form an intermediate state: a mixture of spinel Ni1+xFe2-xO4, Fe2+yO4 and metallic Ni. And CO was generated in parallel during this stage. Approximate 185 mL of CO was generated for 1 g spinel NiFe2O4 in a single cycle. The intermediate oxygen carrier was fully oxidized in the air oxidation stage to form a mixture of Ni1+xFe2-xO4 and Fe2O3. Although the original state of oxygen carrier (NiFe2O4) was not fully regenerated and agglomeration was observed, a good recyclability was shown in 10 successive redox cycles.

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Ethanol electrooxidation on Pd/C nanoparticles in alkaline media
Fangfang Zhang, Debi Zhou, Mingda Zhou
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 71-76 [Abstract] ( 39 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

Carbon-supported Pd nanoparticleswere prepared bymicrowave heating-glycol reductionmethod, and characterized by a wide array of experimental techniques including X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrooxidation behaviors of ethanol on the Pd/C electrode in alkaline media were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and single cell performance methods. Pd/C electrode for ethanol oxidation showed high electro-catalytic activity and long term stability. However, it is observed that the current density decreases with the increasing of the potential and negative impedance presents in the potential from -0.1 to 0.1 V. The decreasing current density and the negative impedance could be due to the adsorbed intermediates species that inhibited the further oxidation of ethanol. Based on the chemical reaction analysis and EIS spectra, equivalent circuits relating to various potential zones have been obtained. These results reveal the dynamic adsorption of intermediates species on Pd surfaces. Significantly, it is clarified that the adsorption behavior begins from the maximum catalysis of electro-catalysis and ends in the formation of the palladium (II) oxide layer on the electrode surface.

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Enhancement of current density using effective membranes electrode assemblies for water electrolyser system
Swaminathan Seetharaman, Subash Chandrabose Raghu, Kambiz Ansari Mahabadi
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 77-84 [Abstract] ( 36 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

The goal of this study was to develop and design a composite proton exchange membrane (PEM) and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that are suitable for the PEM based water electrolysis system. In particular, it focuses on the development of sulphonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) based membranes and caesium salt of silico-tungstic acid (CsSiWA) matrix compared with one of the transition metal oxides such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2). The resultant membranes have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake and atomic force microscopy. Comparative studies on the performance of MEAs were also conducted utilizing impregnation-reduction and conventional brush coating methods. The PEM electrolysis performance of SPEEK-CsSiWA-ZrO2 composite membrane was more superior than that of other membranes involved in this study. Electrochemical characterization shows that a maximum current density of 1.4 A/cm2 was achieved at 60 ℃, explained by an increased concentration of protonic sites available at the interface.

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Effects of Cs-substitution and partial reduction on catalytic performance of Keggin-type phosphomolybdic polyoxometalates for selective oxidation of isobutane
Shizhe Liu, Lu Chen, Guowei Wang, Jianwei Liu, Yanan Gao, Chunyi Li, Honghong Shan
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 85-92 [Abstract] ( 41 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

The catalytic performance of Cs-substituted phosphomolybdic salts was studied for selective oxidation of isobutane. The results of activity tests revealed that 360 ℃ was the optimal reaction temperature. It was demonstrated that oxidizing sites not only took dominating part in the activation of isobutane, but also influenced the product distribution. Besides, appropriate Cs addition led to moderate acidity of catalysts, favoring the selectivity to desired products. Furthermore, to obtain partially reduced catalysts, different calcination atmospheres were investigated and certain proportion of Mo5+ produced during calcination was crucial for the redox reaction. The catalyst calcined in N2 showed the highest yield of MAA (7.0%). Fe-substitution enhanced the activity of catalysts by rapid reoxidation of Mo5+.

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Electrochemical performance of all-solid lithium ion batteries with a polyaniline film cathode
Ji-Woo Oh, Rye-Gyeong Oh, Yongku Kang, Kwang-Sun Ryu
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 93-100 [Abstract] ( 35 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

We have prepared a high-density polyaniline (PANI) paste (50 mg/mL), with similar physical properties to those of paints or pigments. The synthesis of PANI is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The morphologies of PANI, doped PANI, and doped PANI paste are confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particles of doped PANI paste are approximately 40-50 nm in diameter, with a uniform and cubic shape. The electrochemical performances of doped PANI paste using both liquid and solid polymer electrolytes have been measured by galvanostatic charge and discharge process. The cell fabricated with doped PANI paste and the solid polymer electrolyte exhibits a discharge capacity of ~87 μAh/cm2 (64.0 mAh/g) at the second cycle and ~67 μAh/cm2 (50.1 mAh/g) at the 100th cycle.

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Cycle performance of Cu-based oxygen carrier based on a chemical-looping combustion process
Xiaoming Zheng, Lixin Che, Yanqiong Hao, Qingquan Su
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 101-109 [Abstract] ( 38 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

The cycle life of oxygen carrier (OC) is crucial to the practical applications of chemical looping combustion (CLC). Cycle performance of Cu/SiO2 prepared with a mechanical mixing method was evaluated based on a CLC process characterized with an added methane steam reforming step. The Cu/SiO2 exhibited high redox reactivity in the initial cycles, while the performance degraded with cycle number. Through characterization of the degraded Cu/SiO2, the performance degradation was mainly caused by the secondary particles' fragmentation and the fine particles' local agglomeration, which worsened the distribution and diffusion of the reactive gases in the packed bed. A regeneration method of the degraded OC based on re-granulation has been proposed, and its mechanism has been illustrated. With this method, the performance of the degraded OC through 420 redox cycles was recovered to a level close to the initial one.

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Simultaneous recovery of carbon and sulfur resources from reduction of CO2 with H2S using catalysts
Hui Su, Yuyang Li, Ping Li, Yongxiu Chen, Zhizhi Zhang, Xiangchen Fang
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 110-116 [Abstract] ( 42 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

An approach to the simultaneous reclamation of carbon and sulfur resources from CO2 and H2S has been proposed and effectively implemented with the aid of catalysts. A brief thermodynamic study reveals the potential of direct reduction of CO2 with H2S (15:15 mol% balanced with N2) for selective production of CO and elemental sulfur. The experiments carried out in a fixed-bed flow reactor over the temperature range of 400-800 ℃ give evidence of the importance of the employment of catalysts. Both the conversions of the reactants and the selectivities of the target products can be substantially promoted over most catalysts studied. Nevertheless, little difference appears among their catalytic performance. The results also prove that the presence of CO2 can remarkably enhance H2S conversion and the sulfur yield in comparison with H2S direct decomposition. A longtime reaction test onMgO catalyst manifests its superior durability at high temperature (700 ℃) and huge gas hourly space velocity (100, 000 h-1). Free radicals initiated by catalysts are supposed to dominate the reactions between CO2 and H2S.

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Selective oxidation of biomass derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2, 5-diformylfuran using sodium nitrite
Xianxiang Liu, Hui Ding, Qiong Xu, Wenzhou Zhong, Dulin Yin, Shengpei Su
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 117-121 [Abstract] ( 39 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

A mild and simple process for the effective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into 2, 5- diformylfuran (DFF) has been developed using NaNO2 as the oxidant. Some important reaction parameters were investigated to optimize the oxidation of HMF into DFF. It was found that the reaction solvent was very crucial for this reaction. Trifluoroacetic acid was the best solvent for the oxidation of HMF into DFF by NaNO2. Under the optimal reaction condition, almost quantitative HMF conversion and high DFF yield of 90.4% were obtained after 1 h at room temperature.

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Poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide)/[Bmim][Tf2N] blend membranes for carbon dioxide separation
Yongtao Qiu, Jizhong Ren, Dan Zhao, Hui Li, Maicun Deng
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 122-130 [Abstract] ( 38 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

Poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide) (Pebax1657)/1-butyl-3-methylimidazo-lium bis[trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]- imide ([Bmim][Tf2N]) blend membranes with different [Bmim][Tf2N] contents were prepared via solution casting and solvent evaporation method. The permeation properties of the blend membranes for CO2, N2, CH4 and H2 were studied, and the physical properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that [Bmim][Tf2N] was dispersed as amorphous phase in the blend membranes, which caused the decrease of Tg (PE) and crystallinity (PA). With the addition of [Bmim][Tf2N], the CO2 permeability increased and reached up to approximately 286 Barrer at 40 wt% [Bmim][Tf2N], which was nearly double that of pristine Pebax1657 membrane. The increase of CO2 permeability may be attributed to high intrinsic permeability of [Bmim][Tf2N], the increase of fractional free of volume (FFV) and plasticization effect. However, the CO2 permeability reduced firstly when the [Bmim][Tf2N] content was below 10 wt%, which may be due to that the small ions of [Bmim][Tf2N] in the gap of polymer chain inhibited the flexibility of polymer chain; the interaction between Pebax1657 and [Bmim][Tf2N] decreased the content of EO units available for CO2 transport and led to a more compact structure. For Pebax1657/[Bmim][Tf2N] blend membranes, the permeabilities of N2, H2 and CH4 decreased with the increase of feed pressure due to the hydrostatic pressure effect, while CO2 permeability increased with the increase of feed pressure for that the CO2-induced plasticization effect was stronger than hydrostatic pressure effect.

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Boron-doped Ketjenblack based high performances cathode for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries
Yueyan Li, Li Wang, Xiangming He, Bin Tang, Yunxue Jin, Jianlong Wang
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 131-135 [Abstract] ( 37 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

Boron-doped Ketjenblack is attempted as cathode catalyst for non-aqueous rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. The boron-doped Ketjenblack delivers an extremely high discharge capacity of 7193 mAh/g at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, and the capacity is about 2.3 times as that of the pristine KB. When the batteries are cycled with different restricted capacity, the boron-doped Ketjenblack based cathodes exhibits higher discharge platform and longer cycle life than Ketjenblack based cathodes. Additionally, the boron-doped Ketjenblack also shows a superior electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction in 0.1 mol/L KOH aqueous solution. The improvement in catalytic activity results from the defects and activation sites introduced by boron doping.

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Nickel sulfide modified TiO2 nanotubes with highly efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution activity
Jiasheng Huang, Zhisheng Shi, Xinfa Dong
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 136-140 [Abstract] ( 37 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) with nickel sulfide (NiS) co-catalyst were prepared by a simple solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, N2-physisorption, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Loading NiS nano-clusters can significantly enhance the photocatalytic H2 evolution performance of TNTs. The optimum NiS loading contentwas found to be 8 wt% and the corresponding hydrogen production rate is ca. 7486 μmol/h/g, being about 79 times higher than that of pure TNTs. This enhancement of photocatalytic H2 evolution was attributed to the synergistic effect between NiS and TNTs.

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Hydrolysis of cellobiose catalyzed by zeolites-the role of acidity and micropore structure
Lipeng Zhou, Zhen Liu, Yuqi Bai, Tianliang Lu, Xiaomei Yang, Jie Xu
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 141-145 [Abstract] ( 41 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

The roles of acidity and micropore structure of zeolite were studied in the hydrolysis of the model oligosaccharide of cellulose-cellobiose. HZSM-5, HY, HMOR and Hβ zeolites were selected as model catalysts for the hydrolysis of cellobiose. The effect of acidity of zeolite, including the strength, type and location, on its catalytic activity was investigated. The strong Brönsted acid sites located in micropores are the active sites for the hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose. Meanwhile, the catalytic performance of zeolite is also dependent on the micropore size of zeolite.

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Spent coffee ground as source for hydrocarbon fuels
Peter Döhlert, MaikWeidauer, Stephan Enthaler
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 146-152 [Abstract] ( 35 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

The conversion of triglycerides (coffee oil) obtained from spent coffee ground to produce hydrocarbon fuel (diesel) was studied. In more detail, a catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of the coffee oil was performed applying polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS) as cheap reductant under mild reaction conditions. However, along with the hydrocarbons significant amounts of PMHS-waste are generated, since only ~1.7% of the PMHS is required for the reduction process. Based on that, in a subsequent depolymerization step the PMHS-waste was converted to methyltrifluorosilane and difluoromethylsilane, which can be applied as building blocks for the production of new silicones, with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3OEt2) as depolymerization reagent.

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Template-assisted synthesis of hierarchically porous Co3O4 with enhanced oxygen evolution activity
Lan Yao, Hexiang Zhong, Chengwei Deng, Xianfeng Li, Huamin Zhang
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 153-157 [Abstract] ( 35 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is one of the most important reactions in the energy storage devices such as metal-air batteries and unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). However, the kinetically sluggishness of OER and the high prices as well as the scarcity of the most active precious metal electrocatalysts are the major bottleneck in these devices. Developing low-cost non-precious metal catalysts with high activity and stability for OER is highly desirable. A facile, in situ template method combining the dodecyl benzene sulfuric acid sodium (SDBS) assisted hydrothermal process with subsequent high-temperature treatment was developed to prepare porous Co3O4 with improved surface area and hierarchical porous structure as precious catalysts alternative for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Due to the unique structure, the as-prepared catalyst shows higher electrocatalytic activity than Co3O4 prepared by traditional thermal-decomposition method (noted as Co3O4-T) and commercial IrO2 catalyst for OER in 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it displays improved stability than Co3O4-T. The results demonstrate a highly efficient, scalable, and low cost method for developing highly active and stable OER electrocatalysts in alkaline solutions.

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Effect of ethanedioic acid functionalization on Ni/Al2O3 catalytic hydrodeoxygenation and isomerization of octadec-9-enoic acid into biofuel: kinetics and Arrhenius parameters
Olumide Bolarinwa Ayodele, Kallidanthiyil Chellappan Lethesh, Zahra Gholami, Yoshimitsu Uemura
2016 Vol. 25 (1): 158-168 [Abstract] ( 37 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF] ( 0 )

The effect of ethanedioic acid (EdA) functionalization on Al2O3 supported Ni catalyst was studied on the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), isomerization, kinetics and Arrhenius parameters of octadec-9-enoic acid (OA) into biofuel in this report. This was achieved via synthesis of two catalysts; the first, nickel alumina catalyst (Ni/Al2O3) was via the incorporation of inorganic Ni precursor into Al2O3; the second was via the incorporation nickel oxalate (NiOx) prepared by functionalization of Ni with EdA into Al2O3 to obtain organometallic NiOx/Al2O3 catalyst. Their characterization results showed that Ni species present in Ni/Al2O3 and NiOx/Al2O3 were 8.2% and 9.3%, respectively according to the energy dispersive X-ray result. NiOx/Al2O3 has comparably higher Ni content due to the EdA functionalization which also increases its acidity and guarantees high Ni dispersion with weaker metal-support-interaction leading to highly reducible Ni as seen in the X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, TPR and Raman spectroscopy results. Their activities tested on the HDO of OA showed that NiOx/Al2O3 did not only display the best catalytic and reusability abilities, but it also possesses isomerization ability due to its increased acidity. The NiOx/Al2O3 also has the highest rate constants evaluated using pseudo-first-order kinetics, but the least activation energy of 176 kJ/mol in the biofuel formation step compared to 244 kJ/mol evaluated when using Ni/Al2O3. The result is promising for future feasibility studies toward commercialization of catalytic HDO of OA into useful biofuel using organometallic catalysts.

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Bimonthly
(Started in 1992)
Renamed from JNGC in 2013

ISSN 2095-4956
CN 21-1585/O4

Editors-in-Chief
Xinhe Bao
Gabriele Centi


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Journal of Energy Chemistry

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